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Go DIRECTLY To **ODDS CHART**

The following Odds Chart will mostly be used to assist you in making decisions on whether to FOLD or CALL.
We already talked about so-called "Starting Hands" for the beginning player and there are a number of
betting stages in the game of Texas Holdem. Two of the most critical stages are the post-FLOP (after the flop
of course) and post-TURN. In order to make mathematically correct decisions on whether to continue with your hand
you should be familiar with some fundamental odds, especially for **"common draws"**. While you can certainly
win a hand by making a "mathematically incorrect" call, your goal should be to maximize your profit over time
(over the long haul in your career as a poker player). Some of these concepts can get a little complex, and
we won't be getting into alot of the exceptions and subtleties here. We will be focusing on some of the basic
fundamentals of Outs, Odds and Pot Odds. I would recommend mastering these fundamentals before trying to think
about concepts such as "Implied Pot Odds" and "Reverse Pot Odds".

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Believe it or not it is worthwhile to actually memorize this chart. And I will be honest, I have only memorized
keys parts of it, and then I use that to infer or extrapolate to a situation that is borderline or "in between"
the numbers that I have committed to memory. For newer players, or those who have not really committed to thinking
about odds and pot odds yet, I would recommend looking at the "Typical Draws" I have listed below (such as a
Flush Draw, Straight Draw, etc). Don't worry about the percentages right now, but focus on the **"Post Flop Odds"**
and **"Post Turn Odds"** that are indicated for these typical draws. The idea is that you will be comparing the "odds"
of "making your hand" (that is, making the flush, straight, or whatever), with the __AMOUNT it will COST you__ to make
the bet. This is a most __KEY and CRITICAL concept__ and it is what poker players refer to when they speak of so-called
**"Pot Odds"**.

Consider this one example where you are on a **FLUSH DRAW**.

**Your Hole Cards:**

You have what is referred to as "four to a flush" (four out of the five cards you need). Without looking at the chart below, let's think about what we know. We know that there are 52 cards in the deck and that there are 13 HEARTS. We know that WE have 4 of the 13 Hearts already, and thus there are 9 remaining hearts - somewhere. [ They may be in our opponents hands and they may be in the deck - but that is inconsequential since we only use information we KNOW ]. So again, there are 9 remaining hearts and we want one of them, since if we get it, we will have a "Nut Flush" (since we have the highest heart, the Ace of Hearts). We know 5 cards have been exposed to us: our 2 hole cards and the 3 on the flop. Therefore, with simple math, there are 52-5 cards remaining UNKNOWN, which equals 47 UNKNOWN cards. So we know that 9 of the remaining 47 are HEARTS (or cards that will HELP US) - and, this is KEY, that 38 WILL NOT help us. The 9 that will help us are known as "OUTS" (see chart below). For those interested in following the math part of it, 38/9 about 4.2-to-1.

As you look at the chart - specifically if you look at the **Post-Flop odds**, you will see the Post-Flop Odds for the
FLUSH DRAW is 1.86-to-1 (which is nothing like 4.2-to-1, right?). Well that is because this chart factors in the idea
that there are __"TWO CARDS to COME"__ at the flop. So it **assumes you will get TWO chances** to get that heart,
hence the odds are better. If you look at the post-turn odds for the SAME DRAW, you will see it listed as 4.11-to-1.
Knowing that there are 9 remaining hearts and NOW 37 cards that DO NOT help (we assume the turn card was shown and
did not help us), that gives us now 37/9, or exactly 4.11-to-1 (and our confidence in looking at this chart is
hopefully restored, along with out sanity).

**OUTS****Post Flop %****Post Flop Odds****Post Turn %****Post Turn Odds****Typical Draws**
0 Outs
0.0
Dead Hand
0.0
Dead Hand
1 Outs
4.3
22.26-to-1
2.2
45.00-to-1
** 2 Outs**** 8.4**** 10.90-to-1**** 4.3**** 22.00-to-1**** SET Draw (You have a PAIR and Drawing to 3-of-a-kind)**
3 Outs
12.5
7.00-to-1
6.5
14.33-to-1
** 4 Outs**** 16.5**** 5.06-to-1**** 8.7**** 10.50-to-1**** "Gut-Shot" Straight Draw, or 2-Pair with Draw to Full-House**
5 Outs
20.3
3.93-to-1
10.9
8.20-to-1
** 6 Outs**** 24.1**** 3.15-to-1**** 13.0**** 6.67-to-1**** Two Over-Cards (Draw)**
7 Outs
27.8
2.60-to-1
15.2
5.57-to-1
** 8 Outs**** 31.5**** 2.17-to-1**** 17.4**** 4.75-to-1**** Open-Ended Straight Draw**
** 9 Outs**** 35.0**** 1.86-to-1**** 19.6**** 4.11-to-1**** Flush Draw**
10 Outs
38.4
1.60-to-1
21.7
3.60-to-1
11 Outs
41.7
1.40-to-1
23.9
3.18-to-1
** 12 Outs**** 45.0**** 1.22-to-1**** 26.1**** 2.83-to-1**** Flush Draw PLUS Gutshot Straight Draw**
13 Outs
48.1
1.08-to-1
28.3
2.54-to-1
14 Outs
51.2
0.95-to-1
30.4
2.29-to-1
** 15 Outs**** 54.1**** 0.85-to-1**** 32.6**** 2.07-to-1**** Straight-Flush Draw**
16 Outs
57.0
0.75-to-1
34.8
1.88-to-1
17 Outs
59.8
0.67-to-1
37.0
1.71-to-1
18 Outs
62.4
0.60-to-1
39.1
1.56-to-1
19 Outs
65.0
0.54-to-1
41.3
1.42-to-1
20 Outs
67.5
0.48-to-1
43.5
1.30-to-1

Now what makes "memorizing" portions of the chart useful (and all of it for that matter), is that once you determine the number of OUTS, your can lookup (quickly in your head) the odds of getting that heart you need Post-Flop (with TWO cards to come), or Post-Turn (with ONE card to come). Assuming you knew you had a Heart Flush Draw, you would know the odds of getting that heart "post flop" were almost 2-to-1 (specifically 1.86-to-1). Now here is the important part... Say the pot is $2 and your opponent bets 25 cents. You are being asked to bet .25 to make $2. So in "poker lingo", the "pot is offering you" 8-to-1 odds. (that is the pot has 8 times more than what you are being asked to bet). The idea is that if the POT ODDS (8-to-1) are greater than the odds of making your hand (at any betting stage), then this is a bet you should make. In our case, this becomes an easy call. The other thing to note here, is that your opponent has made a poor play, especially if he had TOP PAIR (a pair of nines for example). Instead of shutting you down and making it INCORRECT for you to call, he has actually encouraged a call, by betting so little.

To summarize, when the players on television are sitting there thinking about whether to make a call, ONE of the things that the consider is the comparison of the ODDS of completing the Draw (if on a draw) and what it COSTS to call the bet in relation to the pot size (the so-called POT ODDS). Yes, they are thinking about much more than this, but let's not get ahead of ourselves. I recommend adding these skills to your game in layers. First, try and understand the odds of completing common draws. Then mentally track the amount of money that is going into the pot and keep an estimate (this will ultimately help you if you play in a live game) and compare the pot-size to the current amount you are required to bet. Then you can do the comparison yourself and determine whether it has a "positive expectation" for you or not and you will know whether it is an EASY CALL, borderline, or an EASY FOLD. It becomes automatic as you practice it, and it is a fundamental part of solid play.

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